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Citation Guide: Basic Turabian Rules

A guide to create citations for bibliographies and works cited in reference papers.

Basic Rules

Here are some basic rules to remember.

  • All citations should be single spaced with a double space between entries
  • Indent after the first line of each entry (hanging indent)
  • Alphabetize by the first word of the entry; entries are not numbered
  • Editions of books are noted after the title in the following format: (2nd ed.) First editions are not listed as such. If no edition is listed, omit the edition section
  • Italics must be used for book and periodical titles; quotes are used for chapters and article titles
  • Capitalize titles using headline style (see 16.1.3)
  • List the city of publication. If there a confusion as to which city or the city is unknown then include the Postal state abbreviation or country’s name (i.e. Cambridge, MA or Cambridge, United Kingdom). If two cities are listed, use the first city listed.
  • Dates are in Month Day Year format; spell out each month (e.g., December 20,1999)
  • If no author is listed, begin with title. Use the name Anonymous only if used on the source itself.
  • Use the date of the source, if no date then use the date you accessed it.