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Citation Guide: How to cite AUDIO/VISUAL MATERIALS

A guide to create citations for bibliographies and works cited in reference papers.

Elements to include

According to the Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.), "Documentation of a recording usually includes some or all of the following pieces of information: the name of the composer, writer, performer, or other person primarily responsible for the content; the title, in italics or quotation marks, as applicable (see 8.192); the name of the recording company or publisher; any identifying number of the recording; indication of medium (compact disc, audiocassette, audiovisual file, etc.); and the copyright date or date of production or performance. Recordings consulted online should include a URL or DOI (see 14.5, 14.6). Supplementary information such as the number of discs in an album and the duration of the recording, as applicable, may also be given." (p. 764)

How to cite VIDEOS


Name of actors. "Section of video (if applicable)." Title of video. Medium. Directed by First Name Last Name. City of Production: Distributer, Year of Production.


Neeson, Liam. Schindler's List. DVD. Directed by Steven Spielberg. Universal City, CA: Universal Pictures,1993.

Carrigan, Tim. Cooperative Learning. Videocassette (VHS), 141 min. Produced by Stephanie Smith. Plainview, NY: Teacher's Video Company, 1990.

Video Online

Title of video. Directed by First Name Last Name. Distributer, Year. (Access date if you think it is applicable). URL.


Andrews, Austin.  "Deaf Ninja." YouTube video, 2:54. March 2, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L91KVUXRBq8.

Brohi, Khalida. "How I Work to Protect Women from Honor Killings." Filmed October 2014. TED video, 18:13. Posted February 2015. http://www.ted.com/talks/khalida_brohi_how_i_work_to_protect_women_from_honor_killings.


Title of performance. By First Name Last name. Directed by First name Last name. Name of theater, Place of performance, date of performance.

Lysistrata. By Aristophanes. Directed by Barbara Karger and Michael Preston. Goodwin Theater,
Austin Arts Center, Hartford, CT, April 20, 2006.

How to cite MUSIC

Conductor, Performer, or composer. Title of composition. Performance. Number on CD or record, Date of production, medium.

Whole recording:
Mahler, Gustav. Symphony no. 9. Berlin Philharmonic. Conducted by Sir Simon Rattle. EMI 50999 501228 20. 2008, compact disc.

Part of a recording:
Chopin, Frédéric. Ballade no. 4, op. 52. From Chopin: The Four Ballades, Berceuse, op. 57, Barcarolle, op. 60, Scherzo, op. 54, no. 4. Evgeny Kissin (piano). RCA/Victor Red Seal 09026-63259-2. 1999, compact disc.

From a streaming database:
Brahms, Johannes. Symphony no. 1 in C minor, op. 68. London Symphony Orchestra. Conducted by Neeme Jarvi. Complete Symphonies. Chandos CHAN9776-79. 1999, compact disc. Accessed February 15, 2015. Naxos Music Library.

From an online vendor such as iTunes:
Puccini, Giacomo. “Nessun Dorma.” From Turandot; Luciano Pavarotti (tenor). London Symphony Orchestra. Conducted by Zubin Mehta. Luciano Pavarotti – The Best. Decca 2005, MP3 file. Downloaded May 15, 2009. iTunes.


Artistʼs name. Title of the work. Date it was created. Repository, museum, or owner (in other words, where it is now located). City or country of origin. Dimensions of the work. Material or medium (oil on canvas, marble, found objects, etc.)

Bibliographic entry – general:
Gogh, Vincent van.  The Starry Night.  1889. Oil on canvas.  29 in. x 36 ¼ in.  Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Bibliographic entry – online (websites or databases):
Duveneck, Frank.  Whistling Boy, 1872.  Oil on canvas, 28 in. x 21 ½ in.  Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati.  http://cincinnatiartmuseum.stores.yahoo.net/frduwhboy.html, accessed 12 Aug. 2007.

Titian. Federigo Gonzaga, 1st Duke of Mantua. 1530-1540. Painting on wood. 125 x 99 cm. Available from ARTstor, ID400813/61. (accessed March 3, 2015).