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Citation Guide: Notes: Foot or End

A guide to create citations for bibliographies and works cited in reference papers.

An Overview

According to Chicago Style Manual (16th ed.), "In the system favored by many writers in the humanities, bibliographic citations are provided in notes, preferably supplemented by a bibliography. The notes, whether footnotes or endnotes, are usually numbered and correspond to superscripted note reference numbers in the text; in electronic works, notes and note numbers are usually hyperlinked. If the bibliography includes all works cited in the notes, the notes need not duplicate the source information in full because readers can consult the bibliography for publication details and other information. In works with no bibliography or only a selected list, full details must be given in a note at first mention of any work cited; subsequent citation need only include a short form." (p. 660)

Books, eBooks, and Chapters

Full: 1. Mike Madrid, The Supergirls: Fashion, Feminism, Fantasy, and the History of Comic Book Heroines (Ashland, OR: Exterminating Angel Press, 2009), 25-27.

Shortened (would have a bibliography entry for futher reference): 1. Madrid, The Supergirls, 25.

With editors:
2. George Justice, ed., Emma: An Authoritative Text, Contexts, Criticism (New York: W.W. Norton, 2012), 52-60.
2. Justice, Emma, 60. (note: don't include ed. with shortened note)

With 4 or more authors/editors:
3. Jack Schaefer, et al., Shane: The Critical Edition (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984), 77-80.
3. Schaefer, et al., Shane, 82. (note: list all the authors in the bibliography)

(note: electronic formats do not always have page numbers, if that is the case, then use chapter, section or other locator)
4. Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass (New York, 1855), 22, http://www.whitmanarchive.org/published/LG/1855/whole.html

4. Elizabeth Leavitt Keller, Walt Whitman in Mickle Street (Portland, OR: Floating Press, 2013), 11-15. http://site.ebrary.com/lib/dixie/reader.action?ppg=11&docID=10785681&tm=1426021438491.

Chapters in an Edited book:
5. Glenn Gould, "Streisand as Schwarzkopf," in the The Glenn Gould Reader, ed. Tim Page (New York: Vintage, 1984), 310.

5. Gould, "Streisand as Schwarzkopf," 309.

Secondary Sources

6. Louis Zukofsky, "Sincerity and Objectification," Poetry 37 (February 1931): 269, quoted in Bonnie Costello, Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), 78.


7. Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., s.v. "salvation."

8. Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010), 14.247.


9. Encyclopedia Britannica Online, s.v. "Tutankhamen," accessed March 12, 2015, http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/Topic/610635/Tutankhamen.

10. Grove Music Online, s.v. "Gavotte," by Meredith Ellis Little and Matthew Werley, accessed March 10, 2015, http://www.oxfordmusiconline.com/subscriber/article/grove/music/10774


With doi
(F) 11. Fatemeh Fakharzadeh, et al., "Discovery of Triploidy in Palearctic Green Toads (Anura: Bufonidae) from Iran with Indications for a Reproductive System Involving Diploids and Triploids," Zoologisher Anzeiger - A Journal of Comparative Zoology 255 (March 2015): 25, doi: 10.1016/j.jcz.2015.01.001.

(S) 11. Fakharzadeh, et al., "Discovery of Triploidy in Palearctic Green Toads," 25-26.

From a database
12. Samule Moyn, "New Old Things," Nation, February 9, 2015, 27-32, http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=100563004&login.asp&site=ehost-live

12. Adam Gopnik, "In the Memory Ward," Department of Culture, New Yorker, March 16, 2015, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2015/03/16/in-the-memory-ward.

From a database
13. Andrew Theen, "Affordable-Housing Advocates Challenge City on Urban Renewal," The Oregonian (Portland, OR), February 27, 2015, 4, http://search.proquest.com/docview/1658832119?accountid=27045.

13. Vivian Yee, "The Snow is Melting! But What a Mess It Left Behind," New York Times, March 10, 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/11/nyregion/the-snow-is-melting-but-what-a-mess-it-left-behind.html.

No Author
14. "Britain Moving too Fast on 3-Parent Children," Editorial, Los Angeles Times, March 11, 2015.