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Citation Guide: How to cite AUDIO/VISUAL MATERIALS

A guide to create citations for bibliographies and works cited in reference papers.

How to cite VIDEOS

Producer, A. A. (Producer). (Year). Title of video [Mode]. Country of origin: Studio.

Example:

Spielberg, S. (Producer). (1993). Schindler's List [DVD]. United States: Universal Pictures.

Video Online

Name (Producer). (Year). Title of video [Mode]. Available from complete URL.

Example:

Andrews, A. (Producer). (2007). Deaf ninja [Video]. Available January 5, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L91KVUXRBq8

Turner Broadcasting (Producer). (2010). CNN hero: Dr. Andy Moore [Video]. Available from  http://www.cnn.com/video/data/2.0/video/living/2010/03/04/pkg.cnnheroes.moore.profile.cnn.html

How to cite MOTION PICTURES

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.

Example:

Fonda, H. (Producer), & Lumet, S. (Director). (1957). 12 angry men [Motion picture]. United States of America: Orion-Nova Productions.

How to cite MUSIC RECORDINGS

Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.] Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from song copyright date).

Example:

Brahms, J. (1868). Lullaby [Recorded by SPJ Music, Inc.]. On 25 Tranquil Classics [CD] Hauppauge, NY: SPJ Music, Inc. (2002).

How to cite PHOTOS

Online Photographs

Photographer's Last name, First initial. (Date of composition (if unknown use n.d.). Title of work. Museum or collection, City of collection or museum. Retrieved Date of access, from complete URL of website

Examples:

Hoflehner, J. (n.d.). Liquid Wall. Retrieved March 25, 2010, from http://www.photographersgallery.com/photo.asp?id=4421