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Citation Guide: In-Text References

A guide to create citations for bibliographies and works cited in reference papers.

In-text References

"Although many variations exist, there are 3 major systems for referring to a reference within the text of a published work: Citation-sequence, name-year, and citation-name" (CSE 2014). Dixie State University uses mainly the name-year format so the following examples are for that format. However, if your professor states they want a different format, please follow their wishes. Consult the manual or check with the librarians for any further information.

Name-year format

There are 14 basic formats:

1. Author named within the paper

If you list the name of the author because the year of publication follows the author’s name.

Example: Thomas Friedman (1999) wrote, "No two countries that both had McDonald's had fought a war against each other since each got its McDonald's."

2. Author NOT named within the paper

If the author is not named, include his/her last name in the parenthetical citation with the year of publication.

Example: "No two countries that both had McDonald's had fought a war against each other since each got its McDonald's" (Friedman 1999).

3. No author listed or unknown author

If the article has no author listed, refer to the first portion of the title as in this example for an article called "A Critique of 'Lexus and Olive' View of Globalization.” What’s not there cannot be created.

Example: "Friedman, in his book The Lexus and the Olive Tree, has mentioned that globalization is inevitable and irreversible, the forward march of technology makes it so. Governments can no longer control the free flow of information. The cell phone and satellite television have reached even the remotest Indonesian village" (A critique ... c2001).

4. Work has two authors

If a work has two authors, link their names with the word "and".

Examples: "The network form is on the rise in a big way, and because of this, societies are entering a new epoch" (Arquilla and Ronfelt 1996).

Arquilla and Ronfelt (1996) report that “the network form is on the rise in a big way, and because of this, societies are entering a new epoch."

5. Work has three or more authors

Use only the first author and “et al.” (an abbreviation for et alii, which in Latin means “and others”). Notice there is no punctuation between the author and et al.

Examples: "Individual preventative stress management provides an effective complement for dealing with organizational stress" (Quick et al. 1997).

Quick et al. (1997) contend that "individual preventative stress management provides an effective complement for dealing with organizational stress."

6. Author has more than one work from the same year in References

Differentiate between works by the same author published in the same year with the lowercase letters a, b, c, etc., corresponding to the order of the items in the References list.

Example: In his groundbreaking book, Friedman (1995b) challenged all our assumptions about not only the past, but the future as well.

7. Author has identical surname

When the authors of 2 works published in the same year have identical surnames, include their initials in the in-text reference and separate the 2 in-text references bya semicolon and a space.

Example: Earlier commentary on animal experimentation (Dawson J 1986; Dawson M 1986) showed...

8. References list has more than one author with the same last name

If your bibliography includes two authors with the same last name, Milton Friedman and Thomas Friedman, for example, include the author's first initial in the parenthetical citation or the signal phrase.

Examples: "No two countries that both had McDonald's had fought a war against each other since each got its McDonald's" (Friedman, T 1997).

T. Friedman (1997) asserts that “no two countries that both had McDonald's had fought a war against each other since each got its McDonald's."

9. Information is in two or more works

List both works in the parenthetical citation exactly as they would be listed individually, but separate them with a semicolon. List the sources in chronologic secquence from earliest to latest, separated by semicolons.

Example: Pundits agree that globalization will impact the future of all businesses as national borders are breached, trade barriers are broken down, and both eventually disappear  (Ronkainen, Czinkota, and Tarrant 1995; Friedman 1997).

10. Indirect source (a source quoted in another source)

If you use an indirect quotation (information found in a source that was quoting another source, also known as a secondary source) use the following method of in-text citation with the phrase "as cited in" to denote the fact that you are using a secondary source. This statement, from Glenn Prickett, is quoted on page 30 of Friedman’s book. Only Friedman is listed in the References list, not Prickett.

Example: An environmental group's president, Glenn Prickett, made the following observation about arriving by plane in a remote Amazon village: "Touching down on the grass landing strip we were met by the entire village in traditional dress -- and undress -- and painted faces, with a smattering of American baseball caps bearing random logos" (as cited in Friedman 1997).

11. Source of information is a personal communication (interview, email, etc.)

Interviews, email, telephone calls, etc., are not included in a References list, and all relevant information (name of individual, personal communication, and the date) is contained within the in-text citation.

Example: “Thomas Friedman’s new book, The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century, describes the convergence of technology and events by listing ten items that have reshaped the world” (D. Biniaz, personal communication, November 15, 2005).

12. Unknown date

The emphasis on publication dates in APA citations is not accidental. Disciplines that use this style tend to put great emphasis on the currency of research. It is recommended that student researchers not use sources that do not have dates of publication. However, if you are forced to do so, use the abbreviation n.d. (no date). Often these sources are web sites and do not have page numbers either.

Example: “That no alternative is apparent to Friedman and his ‘intellectual sources’ should not be taken to mean that there are none worthy of discussion” (Rupert [date unknown]).

Rupert ([date unknown]) wrote “that no alternative is apparent to Friedman and his ‘intellectual sources’ should not be taken to mean that there are none worthy of discussion.”

12. Multiple dates

"It is possible for a work to have more than one date. This occurs with journals whose volumes span calendar years, with books published in several volumes over time, and with electronic documents for which a date of publication, a date of copyright, a date of modification and a date of citation may all be available."

"For electronic publications for  which a date of publication, date of copyright, a date of modification and a date of citation may all be available, include only one of these date in the in-text reference in the following order of preference: 1) date of publication; 2) date of copyright; 3)date of modification, update, or revision; and 4) accessed date." p. 553

Example:

(Johnson and Becker 1995-1999)
(Allen c2000)
(Morris [mod 1999])
(Handel et al. [accessed 2002])

14. Organizational author

If the author of the work is an organization, government agency, or corporation, list the name of the author in either the signal tag or the in- text reference. A shortened form may be created for the in-text reference to avoid interrupting the text with a long string of words. For clarity, the abbreviation appears as the initial element in the end reference, within square brackets.

Examples: The landmark report on legalized abortion (IOM 1975) was...

End Reference:
[IOM] Institute of Medicine (US). 1975. Legalized abortion and the public health; report of a study by a committee of the Institute of Medicine. Washington (DC): National Academy of Sciences.