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Citation Guide: How to cite AUDIO/VISUAL MATERIALS

A guide to create citations for bibliographies and works cited in reference papers.


-If your discussion of a work focuses on the contribution of a particular person begin the entry with their name.

-If you are writing about a film or television series begin with the title.

-When documenting a work, you should generally cite the organization that had the primary overall responsibility for it.

-If using a DVD or CD, then include information found on container.

How to cite VIDEOS

Focused Person, if needed. “Episode, if needed.” Title of work, Other contributors, version, number, publisher, production date.


Schindler's List. Directed by Steven Spielberg, Universal Pictures, 1993. Universal Studios Home Video, 1994.

Gellar, Sarah Michelle, performer. “Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999. Twentieth Century Fox, 2003, disc 3

Video Online

Focused Person, if needed. “Episode, if needed.” Title of video, other contributors, version, number, publisher, publication date, URL.


Andrews, Austin, performer.  “Deaf Ninja.” YouTube, uploaded by AWTI, 6 Feb. 2007, www.youtube.com/watch?v=L91KVUXRBq8.

Klairmont, Laura. “Breaking the Cycle of Absentee Fathers.” CNN Heroes, Turner Broadcasting Systems, 27 Apr. 2016, www.cnn.com/2016/03/03/us/cnn-heroes-sheldon-smith-fatherhood-dovetail-project/index.html.


Focused Person, if needed. “Episode, if needed.” Title of video, other contributors, version, number, publisher, publication date.


12 Angry Men. Directed by Sidney Lumet, Orion-Nova, 1957. 

 Day-Lewis, Daniel, performer. A Room with a View. Goldcrest Films International, 1984.

Live Performances / Presentations

Author. “Title of Presentation.” Title of work or conference, other contributors, date of performance/presentation, Venue, City (omit city if in the name of venue).


McCartney, Paul. "Ocean's Kingdom." New York City Ballet, choreographed by Peter Martins, 22 Sept. 2011, David. H. Koch Theater, New York.

Atwood, Margaret. “Silencing the Scream.” Boundaries of the Imagination Forum. MLA Annual Convention, 29 Dec.1993, Royal York Hotel, Toronto.


Focused Person, if needed. “Title of song, if needed.” Title of album, other contributors, version, number, publisher, publication date.


Schubert, Franz. Piano Trio in E Flat Major D929. Performance by Wiener Mozart-Trio, unabridged version, Deutsch 929, Preiser Records, 2011.

Beyoncé. “Pretty Hurts.” Beyoncé, Parkwood Entertainment, 2013, www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs.

How to cite PHOTOS

Photographer's name. Title of work. Date of composition, URL.


Hoflehner, Josef. Liquid Wall. 2005, www.josefhoflehner.com/iceland/02.html.

Adams, Ansel. Monolith: The Face of Half Dome. 1927, library.artstor.org/library/secure/ViewImages?id=8D1Efjk2NjsgQi85cDV5Q3Qg&userId=gDRAcDwn&zoomparams=&fs=true.

Photographs / Art Work

Artist’s name. Title of work (if unknown then description (not in italics)). Date of composition, Museum or collection (if unknown then use Private Collection without city), City of collection or museum (Omit city if in the name of Museum).


Bearden, Romare. The Train. 1974, Museum of Modern Art, New York.